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Einstein is the chief architect of 20th century physics. He was often called "the prince of physicists" , "the master guru of science" and "the father of the Atomic Age". Albert Einstein is indisputably a towering figure not only of the world of science but also of the 20th century culture. His theories, first thought to be bizarre and unreal, have survived triumphantly the rigorous tests of many and elaborate experiments. Much of his work had produced spin-offs that touched many aspects of our lives. Amongst them are nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, lasers, black holes and an expanding universe. It is strange that Einstein's science is more relevant today than during his lifetime. It has also literally touched everyone's life in one way or another. This is the main reason why every educated person must have a sense of the Einstein heritage.
Einstein's human side is just as rich and colorful yet unfortunately it is so often ignored or misunderstood. He was the eccentric genius with sheepdog like hair, dressed in baggy clothes and refusing to wear socks. A simple man full of humanity and humility, he detested materialism and believed in a God for all nature rather than an anthropomorphic God who cares only about the sins and problems of humans. A life-long pacifist, he disliked the military and fought passionately to bring about a nuclear disarmament. His position on many social issues is as much appropriate today as it was in his lifetime.
- Too small canon ball will fall down, too big canon ball will permanently leave the earth but idealized right speed will set the ball in orbit
- Gravity is a universal law. The same force of gravity that makes an apple fall keeps the moon in orbit.
- Force of attraction : masses attract each other. the bigger mass has more gravity. as the distance increase the gravity become smaller.
F=force of gravity, G=constant, M and m=mass, r=distance between M and m
SPEED OF LIGHT C = 3 exp 8 meter/sec
Ether was thought to be the substance responsible for the transmission of light. It was thought to be everywhere, even in space. It was suspected to be very thin since we cannot feel it and with rigidity of thousand times that of steel to generate the speed of light.
Beams of light are expected to have different speeds in different directions depends upon the streams of ether.
Michelson and Morley Experiment to prove the existence of the ether -- proved to be death certificate of Ether
19th century believed Law of Conservation of Energy : "Energy cannot be created out of nothing, nor can be destroyed." However, this Law of Conservation of Energy was threatened by the discovery of radioactivity.
1905, The Special Theory of Relativity
Special = limited
"We are not only separated by distance but also by time"
Andrew .. Simultaneous explosion of the stars A and B
Mary .. A ------> B
Peter.. B ------> A
All are right from their perspective
the clock on equator moves faster by 900mph
the clock on the plane runs slower
Birth and death at a lab which is stationary : 10 exp-6 s (one millionth of second)
Muons' life in motion(in a accelerator machines at 95% of speed of light)
extended by 1000 (10 exp-3 s : thousandth of second)
space shrinks in the direction of motion.
the faster the motion, the more the shrinkage
"space" must be viewed as spacetime. Time and space are affected by high speed.
Energy and mass are manifestations of the same thing. Energy can become mass and mass can become energy. This can be proved by radioactivity (mass -- energy), nuclear energy (mass -- energy), energy from a star (mass -- energy) and Big-Bang model of universe (energy -- particles -- Galaxies)
1915, The General Theory of Relativity : A new theory about gravity
EXAMPLE: A spaceship without window is traveling at constant speed. All of sudden the astronaut find himself standing on the floor. This can be caused either by force of acceleration or by force of gravity. The astronaut cannot distinguish the two different force.
Eddington (astronomer), in 1919, proved that light from a star is bent by the gravity of the sun. He observed the position of a certain star during a total eclipse. He found it to be displaced. This was so because its starlight was bent by the gravity of the sun.
1832, M. Faraday in England produced Electricity by moving a magnet inside a coil. All power plants that produce electricity use the same method -- coils spinning inside magnets. The sources of power that make the coils spin are various including windmill, waterfall, and steam turns turbines. Steam to turns turbines are generated by burning coal(70%), by burning oil, and nuclear fission(20%). Nuclear fission split atoms which produce heat then, this heat is used to heat up steam. Nuclear is becoming a major source of our electricity.
Rules of Atom : must be electrically neutral
EXAMPLE: Uranium : 238-U-92
238: mass number
92: Atomic number
: this means Uranium has 92 Electrons and 92 Protons
(238 - 92) = 146 Neutrons
EXAMPLE: Carbon 12-C-6
Isotopes : Atoms with identical, physical and chemical properties which means same number of electrons(protons) but have different number of neutrons.
EXAMPLE: Uranium isotopes
EXAMPLE: Hydrogen isotopes
H-2-O = water, Heavy water made with 2-H-1 is used for nuclear energy
Nuclear Fission : process in which an unstable nucleus splits in two smaller nuclei accompanied by the release of energy using 235-U-92 as fuel. This split is only possible by using neutron as a bullet.
these three neutrons will cause chain reaction of splitting atoms.
Nuclear Fusion : process in which two smaller nuclei combine to form a new larger nucleus and the release of energy by using Hydrogen. Hydrogens are abundant and cheap. However, this process requires 10 million degree of heat( C) which challenges current technology.
first discovered in 1896
(*) 3 forms of Radioactivity
Atom missing one or more electrons --- Ion
Ionization can be caused by either extreme heat or collisions.
All forms of Radioactivity can cause ionization.
Alpha : most ionizing, least penetration
Gamma : least ionizing, most penetrating
Background of Radioactivity
Geiger counter : instrument to detect radioactivity
MREM : Millirem (unit of radioactivity, as far as damage to human body) Roentgen Equivalent Man
Maximum allowed for worker in nuclear plant is 3 - 5000 MREM/yr.
Uses of Radioactivity
Bishop Usher in 17th century said the universe began 4004 B.C. Tuesday 9:00 by interpreting the bible. But science tells us the universe is 14 billion years old.
location, how far away, chemical composition, temperature, age, speed, rotation speed and possibly surrounding planets.
Galaxy is a cluster of stars. The Milky way is the name of our galaxy estimated to have 100 billion stars. It will take 120,000 LY to cross. LY which stands for Light Year is a unit of distance that light will travel in one year.
1929, Hubble discovered universe is expanding by observing light of galaxy and analyzed. He measured the rate of expansion and by using this rate backward he proved that the universe is 14 billion years old.
Hydrogen spectrum on galaxies was found to be shifted to the red which is called Dopper Red Shift. This phenomenon can be explained only if the galaxy is moving away.
Expansion continues -- universe will get colder -- stars will dim
Expansion slows down -- stops -- universe begins to condense -- (collapse)
if there is enough dark matter
universe will expand and condense back then, start all over again ... go round
Our sun ends in Nebulas stage
It has been in stable stage for 5 billion years and will stay for another 5 billion years.
"Laser" - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Ordinary light : incoherent light -- different colors going in different directions and mixture of many different colors
Laser light : Electrons can perform a unique dance called Metastable state. This produces coherent light which is pure(-only one color) and moves in step in one direction.
Einstein discovered that light stimulated other atoms to give off similar light : Light is Amplified. This discovery leads to the discovery of laser light.
The "Failure" of Einstein in Science
The universe was static. After Hubble's discovery, Einstein admitted that he was wrong. Then, he removed the cosmological constant from his theory -- universe is expanding.
takes place inside nuclear, act like glue.
second weakest force in nature and related to radioactivity
keep electrons to stay in orbit motion
if electromagnetic does not exist everything will disintegrate because no atoms can exist without this force
keeps nuclear together, without this force the electrical force between same force ( ex; protons with protons) will appulse apart only appears inside nuclear.
"Light comes in particles called protons."
look for probability rather than defined
mathematical tool in describing nature
"God does not play dice with the universe," said Einstein
no absolute measurements in position and speed of particles.
"Nature is built on error." -- The act of observation (which involves light) creates errors which cannot be eliminated
"How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn, for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people -- first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent and then for the many, unknown to us, to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving..."
"I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves -- this ethical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty. The ideals that have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerful, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective world, the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed empty to me. The trite objects of human efforts -- possessions, outward success, luxury -- have always seemed to me contemptible."
"My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. I am truly a lone traveler and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties, I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude..."
"The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery -- even if mixed with fear -- that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds: it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity. In this sense, and only this sense, I am deeply religious man...I am satisfied with the mystery of life's eternity and with a knowledge, a sense, of the marvelous structure of existence -- as well as the humble attempt to understand even a tiny portion of the Reason that manifests itself in nature."
"Knowledge and skills alone cannot lead humanity to a happy and dignified life... Humanity has every reason to place the proclaimers of high moral standards and values above the discoverers of objective truth. What humanity owes to personalities like Buddha, Moses, and Jesus ranks higher than all the achievements of the inquiring and constructive mind."
"It is strange to be known so universally and yet to be so lonely."
"What I see in nature is a magnificent structure that we can comprehend only very imperfectly, and that must fill a thinking person with a feeling of ‘humility.' This is a genuinely religious feeling that has nothing to do with mysticism.... My religiosity consists in a humble admiration of the infinitely superior spirit that reveals itself in the little that we, with our weak and transitory understanding, can comprehend of reality."
"I want to know how God created this world. I want to know his thought, the rest are details... What really interests me is whether God had any choice in the creation of the world"
"Knowledge of what is does not open the door directly to what should be."
"What characterizes the aspirations of a person who gives me the impression of being religious: a person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings, and aspirations to which he clings because of their superpersonal value.
"Science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary. Religion, on the other hand, deals only with evaluations of human thought and action: it cannot justifiably speak of facts and relationships between facts... Science can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspiration toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling, however, springs from the sphere of religion. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational, that is, comprehensible to reason. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind."
From the New York Times, October 5, 1952.
"It is not enough to teach man a specialty. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality. It is essential that the student acquire an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and of the morally good. Otherwise he--with his specialized knowledge--more closely resembles a well-trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to individual fellow-men and to the community. These precious things are conveyed to the younger generation through personal contact with those who teach, not--or at least not in the main--through textbooks. It is this that primarily constitutes and preserves culture. This is what I have in mind when I recommend the "humanities" as important, not just dry specialized knowledge in the fields of history and philosophy. Overemphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects (point system). Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality. Teaching should be such that what is offered is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty."
"All our lauded technological progress -- our very civilization -- is like the ax in the hand of the pathological criminal."
"My political ideal is democracy. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and reverence from my fellow beings, through no fault, and no merit, of my own. The cause of this may well be the desire, unattainable for many, to understand the few ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle. I am quite aware that for any organization to reach its goals, one man must do the thinking and directing and generally bear the responsibility. But the led must not be coerced; they must be able to choose their leader. In my opinion, an autocratic system of coercion soon degenerates; force attracts men of low morality...The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the political state, but the creative, sentient individual, the personality; it alone creates the noble and the sublime, while the herd as such remains dull in thought and dull in feeling."
"The topic brings me to that worst outcrop of herd life, the military system, which I abhor... This plague-spot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. Heroism on command, senseless violence, and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism -- how passionately I hate them!